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A P11D form is where employers and directors of companies have to declare benefits in kind to HMRC.
Whether you employ people in your business, or you’ve received benefits in kind as a director, you’ll need to declare these benefits every year.
Being self-employed you’re essentially both an employer and employee, so you should use the P11D form to report any benefits to HMRC as part of your annual Self Assessment.
This article was updated on 6 April 2023 to reflect new dates, deadlines, and filing process.
If you’re not sure what goes on a P11D form, what ‘benefit in kind’ means, or when the filing deadline is, this article explains everything you need to know as a small business owner.
There are two forms you need to know about:
Employers need to file a P11D form for any employees in receipt of benefits in kind. You should also complete this form for company directors or if you’re registered as self-employed.
You must use a separate P11D for each director or relevant employee.
If there aren’t any taxable benefits in kind to declare then you don’t need to complete a form.
Benefits in kind are non-cash benefits, or perks, provided to a director or employee that aren’t included in their salary or wages.
These are taxable benefits so need to be reported to HMRC, and you may need to pay National Insurance contributions on these benefits.
P11D benefits include things like:
You don’t need to include any allowable business expenses on your P11D. This includes things like:
You have a legal obligation to report any expenses and benefits to HMRC at the end of the tax year. Your P11D must be filed by 6 July for the previous tax year, and any taxes must be paid by 22 July.
The P11D deadline for the 2022-23 tax year is 6 July 2023 and the payment deadline is 22 July 2023.
It’s important to file all tax returns accurately and on time – and this includes your P11D form.
The P11D late filing penalties kick in if you miss the deadline by two weeks. After this you’ll be fined £100 each month (or part month) your form is late, for every 50 employees.
There’s also a penalty for making an incorrect return, or for deliberately submitting incorrect information. This penalty is a maximum of £3,000 for each form.
You could also receive a penalty for late payment. Read more about HMRC penalty appeals process, plus the new points-based penalty system which is gradually being introduced depending on your tax obligation.
You can report benefits in kind to HMRC in two ways:
The government retired the interactive PDF for 2021-22 submissions (known as HMRC's online end of year expenses and benefits service).
All P11D forms must be submitted online from 6 April 2023.
Check the government’s website for more guidance on completing the P11D forms.
You don’t need to submit a P11D form if you’re payrolling benefits. You just need to register the benefits with HMRC online so they know that tax is being collected through payroll. Gov.uk has more information on payrolling benefits.
It’s important to be on top of your finances and keep accurate records for tax reasons.
When it comes to your P11D, you’ll need to keep copies of benefits-related records for three years from the end of the tax year they’re for. For more general guidance, read our article on how long to keep business records.
Your records should include the date and details of every benefit, and how you worked out the amounts (for example, receipts), and any payment you (or your employee) contributes.
More information on bookkeeping and tax can be found in the guides below:
Tax is a complex topic. Please treat this article as a guide only and get professional advice if you’re not sure about anything.
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Catriona Smith is a content and marketing professional with 12 years’ experience across the financial services, higher education, and insurance sectors. She’s also a trained NCTJ Gold Standard journalist. As a Senior Copywriter at Simply Business, Catriona has in-depth knowledge of small business concerns and specialises in tax, marketing, and business operations. Catriona lives in the seaside city of Brighton where she’s also a freelance yoga teacher.
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